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20. ,

1.

L. Talmon. The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy (New York: Praeger, 1960), C.B. Macpherson. The Real World of Democracy (London: Oxford University Press, 1966). , , , , .

2.

. : Victor C. Funnell. The Metamorphosis of the Chinese Communist Party // Studies in Comparative Communism 4 (April 1971). 3.

Mao Tse-tung. Selected Works, vol. 4,1941-1945 (New York: International Publishers, 1956), p. 113. 4.

. : . . Rigby. The Extent and Limits of Authority // Problems of Communism 12 (September-October 1963). 5.

. : James . Malloy. Generation of Political Support and Allocation of Costs in Revolutionary Change in Cuba, ed. Carmelo Mesa-Lago (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1971). 6.

. : Philip D. Stewart. Soviet Interest Groups and the Policy Process: The Repeal of Production Education // World Politics 22 (October 1969). 7.

Frederick, Barghoorn. Politics in the U.S.S.R., 2nd ed. (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972), pp. 198-199. 8.

James R. Townsend. Political Participation in Communist China, new ed. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969), pp. xiii-xiv. 9.

Andrew C. Janos. Group Politics in Communist Society in Authoritarian Politics in Modern Society, Samuel P. Huntington and Clement H. Moore (New York: Basic Books, 1970), p. 446ff; . H. Rigby. Crypto-Politics, Survey 50 (January 1964); Michel Oksenberg. Occupational Groups in Chinese Society and the Cultural Revolution in Communist Systems in Comparative Perspective, eds.

Lenard J. Cohen and Jane P. Shapiro (New York: Doubleday, 1974).

] 0. ( ) .: Moshe Lewin. Political Undercurrents in Soviet Economic Debates (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1974), p. 268. 11.

Jerry F. Hough. The Soviet System // Problems of Communism 2 (March-April 1972):

27-32. 12.

Jerry F. Hough. The Brezhnev Era // Problems of Communism 25 (March-April 1976), p. 10. 13.

A.H. Brown. Political Change in Czechoslovakia // Government and Opposition 4 (Spring 1969). 14.

New York Times, 19 September 1976, p. 1. 15.

. : Rudolf L. Tokes, ed. Dissent in the U.S.S.R. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975). 16.

Barry H. Richman. Industrial Society in Communist China (New York: Random House, 1969)

, p. 369ff; J- A. Cohen. The Criminal Process in China in Soviet and Chinese Communism, ed. Donald W. Treadgold (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1967); a . : Telford Taylor. Courts of Terror (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1976). 17.

, , 600 . Herbert Matthews. Fidel Castro (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1969), p. 145. 18.

Alexander Dallin and George W. Breslauer. Political Terror in Communist Systems (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1970). 19.

John W. Lewis. Leadership in Communist China (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1963)

, p. 5. 20.

Robert Conquest. The Great Terror (New York: Macmillan, 1973), pp. 702-713. 21.

Yuri P. Frantsev. The Individual under Communism: A Soviet View in The Challenge of Politics, eds. Alvin Z. Rubenstein and Garold W. Thumm, 3rd ed. (Engle-wood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1970), p. 231. 22.

Cm.: Jeremy R. Azrael. Soviet Union in Education and Political Development, ed. James S. Coleman (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1965), pp.

250-254, : S. . Lipset. Equity and Equality in Public Wage Policy in Public Employee Unions, ed. A. L. Chickering (San Francisco, Calif.: Institute for Contemporary Studies, 1976), pp. 112-113. 23.

Barbara Wolfe Jancar. Women and Soviet Politics in Soviet Politics and Society in the 1970s, eds. Henry W. Morton and Rudolf L. T?kes York: Free Press, 1974), pp. 118, 141-142; Paul Hollander. Soviet and American Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973), p. 247. 24.

Jonathan Mirsky. China after Nixon // Annals 402 (July 1972): 85-86. 25.

, , , (Hough. The Soviet System, p. 39). 26.

Herbert L. Matthews. Revolution in Cuba (New York: Scribners, 1975), p. 370; Carl Riskin. Workers Incentives in Chinese Industry in U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, China: A Reassessment of the Economy, 94th Congress, 1st session, 1975, p. 206. 27.

. : Riskin. Workers Incentives in Chinese Industry. . : Jan S. Prybyla. The Political Economy

' of Communist China (Scranton, Pa.: International Textbook, 1970), pp. 92,196-197; Time, 10 January 1972, pp. 60-61. . : Matthews. Revolution in Cuba, chapter 16. 28.

Nicholas R. Lardy. Economic Planning in the Peoples Republic of China in Joint Economic Committee, China. 29.

Hough. The Brezhnev Era, pp. 11-12. 30.

J. Wilczynski. The Economics of Socialism (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1970). , , , , 17: - . 31.

Frederick L. Pryor. Public Expenditures in Communist and Capitalist Nations (Homewood 111.

: Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1968), chapter 7. . : Jack Minkoff and Lynn Turgeon. Income Maintenance in Eastern Europe /, Social Policy 6 (March-April, 1976). 32.

Harold L. Wilensky. The Welfare State and Equality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975), pp. 30-31. 33.

Robert B. Semple, Jr. Income Inequity in Britain Found to Change Little in Decade // Ne\s York Times, 2 August 1975. : Royal Com mission on the Distribution of Income and Wealth, Initial Report on the Distribution oi Income and Wealth (London: Her Majestys Stationery Office, 1975). . James D. Smith & Stephen D. Franklin The Concentration of Personal Wealth, 1922-1969 /, American Economic Review 64 (May 1974): 162-167.

. . : . Frankel. Capitalist Society and Modern Socio logy (London: Laurence & Wishart, 1970), pp. 83-86. 34.

: Harold Lydall. The Structure of Earnings (London: Oxford University Press 1968)

, p. 153 , : Frederic R. Pryor Property and Industrial Organization in Communist and Capitalist Nations (Bloomington Indiana University Press, 1973), p. 83. , . 35.

Peter Wiles. Distribution of Income: East and West (Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1974) pp. 25, 48. 36.

, , Robert Conquest. Agricultural Workers in the U.S.S.R. (London: Bodley Head, 1968) pp. 99-100. . : Robert Miller. The Future of the Soviet Kolkhoz // Problems of Communism 25 (March-Apri 1976). , , (Charles Hoffman. Work Incentive Practices and Policies in the People Republic of China, 1953-1965 [Albany: State University of New York Press, 1967], p. 13) , , , (, ). < , , : , 74 85 : (Riskin. Workers Incentives in Chinese Industry, p. 205). 37.

Pryor. Property and Industrial Organization, p. 83. 38.

. : A. Doak Bat nett. Uncertain Passage (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1974), pp. 132-133; Ale xander Eckstein. Chinas Economic Development (Ann Arbor: University of Michiga: Press, 1973), pp. 346-350; Richman. Industrial Society, pp. 804-805; Christopher Howe. Economic Trends and Policies // Political Quarterly 45 (January-March 1974): 23. 39.

Riskin. Workers Incentives. 40.

Joseph A. Kahl. Cuban Paradox in Cuban Communism, ed. Irving L. Horowitz (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1972), p. 288. 41.

Bruce M. Russett et al. World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1964), p. 243. , , . : P. J. D. Wiles. The Political Economy of Communism (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1964), p. 48. 42.

W. Irwin Gillespie. Effect of Public Expenditures on the Distribution of Income in Essays in Fiscal Federalism, ed. Richard A. Musgrave (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1965)

, pp. 164-165. 43.

. : William . Mitchell. Public Choice in America (Chicago: Markham, 1971), chapter 4. 44.

Morton Paglin. The Measurement and Trend of Inequality // American Economic Review 65 (September 1975). , . , : Richard Titmucs. Income Distribution and Social Change (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1962), p. 198. 45.

James E. Meade. Efficiency, Equality, and Ownership of Property (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1965), pp. 38-39. 46.

The Private Lives of Russias Rulers, Atlas (July-August 1971): 20-27; Andrei D. Sakharov. My Country and the World (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975), pp. 25-27; . : Jacqueline R. Kasun. United States Poverty in World Perspective // Current History 64 (June 1973): 251-252. 47.

Matthews. Revolution in Cuba, pp. 380-381; Archibald R. M. Ritter. The Economic Development of Revolutionary Cuba: Strategy and Performance (New York: Praeger, 1974), p. 288ff. 48.

Arthur G. Ashbrook, Jr. China: Economic Overview, 1975, Joint Economic Committee, China, p. 51. 49.

David P. Barkin and Nita R. Manitzas, eds. Cuba: The Logic of the Revolution (Andover, Mass.: Warner Modular Publications, 1973), pp. M261-269.

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